Quantum Mechanics, Consciousness, Measurement, Nature
Perhaps it is a good time to put some deep thought into what the implications of quantum mechanics might be. We know, in the world as we perceive it, quantum is counterintuitive. But quantum has been proven to exist: quantum superposition quantum mechanical entanglement. Both are real, but are they? What part does measurement play? What part does consciousnesses have in quantum mechanics? A bit of a stretch from the typical quantum computing article, this piece is quite thought provoking and begs many questions about reality. June 2, 2018.
Theoretically, This Quantum Computing Method is 10 Billion X More Tolerant…
Researchers in Japan have theoretically met the challenge of errors caused by noise in qubit production. Reduction of the noise is attained through a type of ‘squeezing’ applied to light. Their model delivers 10 billion times the resistance to errors than alternate models. June 2, 2018.
Japanese research teams theorize reducing errors in quantum systems is possible up to a 10 billion times reduction.
Are We Close, Yet?
We see and hear the question asked often…how close are we to a true quantum computer? The question is difficult to answer. The Qubit Report has seen anywhere from 3 years to 10 years and some predictions out to 20 years. (Naysayers say ‘never’, of course). There are many reasons precluding this complicated technology from coming to fruition right-away. Noise, electrical flux, maturity of qubit hardware, lack of quantum algorithms, and funding to name several. This piece in Scientific American does a fine job of looking at the “When, really?” question explaining these challenges and many others. June 2, 2018.
The above image is that of an ion trap used by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology circa 2010. The ion trap is one piece of the complex hardware comprising quantum computers.
Quantum Supremacy or Quantum “Not Enitrely Useless”?
Keep reality in perspective. Quantum supremacy is a popular term will it come to fruition? We at The Qubit Report believe quantum computing will get here sooner or later. But keep all angles in mind. This author puts forth an argument that quantum will likely never arrive. Entropy begets more entropy. Noise begets more noise. But is it all worthless? Well, read on. Worth a couple minutes. June 4, 2018.
Quantum Supremacy. Will it arrive?
Quantum Measurement Communication Speedup
A research team from Bar Ilan University in Tel Aviv has managed to implement a method of quantum communication measurement which greatly increases the rate at which quantum measurement data is transferred. Quantum encryption secrecy relies on the ability to determine if a man-in-the-middle attack (eavesdropper) has infiltrated the communication channel between two parties. The ability for the parties to maintain secrecy relies upon measurements of the quantum communication link coupled with the speed at which the measurements are transferred. Present methods utilize electrical paths – a megahertz to gigahertz bottleneck. The team replaced the electrical method with an optical method which provides a multi-fold speed increase for the data transfer in comparison to the electrical method. June 4, 2018.
Israeli team greatly increases quantum measurement transfer speeds.
U.S. Navy Awards Scientist for Quantum Work
Dr. Thomas Reinecke received accolades from the U.S. Office of Naval Research for his dedication to the Quantum Phenomena and Modeling Section at the Naval Research Laboratory. The ongoing work Dr. Reinecke directed centered not only on Navy applications but U.S. Department of Defense as whole. Areas of contribution include quantum well optics and transport, quantum nanowires, and other quantum information technologies. Much of the work is ongoing and covers highly sensitive sensing, quantum information processing, and of course, secure communications. The U.S. DoD has a sizeable program that encompasses the U.S. Navy, Air Force, and Army research labs the collaboration is attributed to Dr. Reinecke. June 4, 2018.
Zero Energy Loss
Quantum computers, arguably, could break blockchain encryption. However, a group of scientists at the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow believe they have a solution. The importance to world economies is growing as one of blockchains most visible uses is Bitcoin. By 2025, predictions state 10 percent of the world’s gross domestic product will be stored on blockchain technology. The team in Russia has enabled quantum key distribution to provide authentication, enabling trust among network nodes. This new method and enablement of QKD for blockchain serves to enhance trust in these new “disruptive” technologies. Read on for further details…June 5, 2018.
An exotic magnetic insulator conducts electricity along its edges without energy loss. The M stands for magnetization of the magnet.
(Image Credit: Wenbo Wang/Rutgers University-New Brunswick)
Why the Threat to Bitcoin from Quantum Computing is Fixable.
The Qubit Report is carrying an article titled “The Russians and Blockchain…”, today. Coincidentally, THE EPOCH TIMES has a piece describing the threat and the solution to blockchain security. It’s held that the advent of quantum computing will usher in signature-cracking by 2027. The threat to blockchain boils down to: (1) After a Bitcoin (a cryptocurrency) transaction is broadcast to the network, it is at risk. (2) Using a quantum computer, the secret key could be derived before transaction placement on the blockchain. (3) Malicious intent could permit the broadcast of the secret key with a new transaction to the malicious actor’s own benefit. (4) Placing the new stolen secret key-enabled transaction on the blockchain before the original transaction permits grand theft of all the bitcoin “behind the original”. The piece continues on, pointing out 4 solutions to the issue with seemingly ample time for their implementation. Let’s hope the 4 solutions and the time allotted are sufficient. And the world listens. June 5, 2018.
Cryptocurrencies have reason to act on security concerns posed by quantum cpmputing.
The Russians and Blockchain: Try a Quantum Computing Key.
Arquably, quantum computers could break blockchain encryption. However, a group of scientists at the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow believe they have a solution. The importance to world economies is growing as one of blockchain’s most visible uses is Bitcoin. By 2025, predictions state 10 percent of the world’s gross domestic product will be stored on blockchain technology. The team in Russia has enabled quantum key distribution to provide authentication, enabling trust among network nodes. Read on for further details…June 5, 2018.
Phonons and Photons; Big Vibrations
Photons are the quantum of light. Phonons are the quantum of sound. Studies at the Vienna University of Technology are suggesting the use of phonons to transfer quantum information. Testing is being conducted with diamond rods containing silicon placed in specific locations around carbon. By vibrating the rod, the silicon atoms form a needed quantum-mechanical bond. Through use of microwaves, the silicon is turned off and on, emitting or absorbing phonons. The resulting quantum entanglement permits quantum information to be transferred. June 6, 2018.
Because Quantum is Coming; But When Will It Be Tamed?
Quantum computing is coming. When and how powerful is tough to pin down. The Qubit Report carried a piece calling quantum computing “a bunch of bunk”. For one, it’s not here. The media hype helps fundraising for research and the stories of doom and gloom abound throughout the mainstream media because it sells. That’s it. We do know this: Quantum computing at a practical level is a bit in the distance. Semiconductor technology will keep advancing classical computer power, reducing some of the processing gain through quantum computers. Cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology, and the like, are arguably at risk to quantum computing. Or are they? Read on. June 7, 2018.
Error Correction Not Needed
Israeli led researchers at the Weizman Institute of Science have presented evidence for particles capable of storing quantum information — without needing error correction. These particles are termed non-Abelian anyons. Standard particle physics entails only fermions and bosons. However, exceptions do occur, called anyons. Abelian anyons are akin to fermions in behavior. Non-Abelian anyons have ‘odd’ properties useful, it is thought, for topological quantum computing (TQC). TQC does not demand error correction to make the qubits useful. Why no error-correction needed? Locally, perturbations of the anyons may exist but the errors do not map globally where it matters. June 7, 2018.
Quantum Computing Research Act of 2018
The U.S. Congress is taking notice of the potential of quantum computing. With a small step toward directing the U.S. DOD, a U.S. Senator has proposed the Quantum Computing Research Act of 2018. The proposal calls quantum information science vital to national security, especially in the realm of quantum communication and quantum computing. The proposal further calls on the U.S. government, academia, and industry to align efforts. The act would require development by the DOD of the Defense Quantum Information Consortium, led by U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, and other DOD offices. June 9, 2018.
Qubit Control thru Silicon and Magnetism
Silicon-based qubits have spin-orbits which are manipulated with magnetic fields more readily than other means available. Designers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison created the experimental device, based on silicon. Research scientists from Purdue University and the Technological University of Delft conducted the experimentation. The spin-orbit strength was found to be dependent on magnetic fields from external sources coupled with the silicon surface material; where qubits reside as quantum dots. Control of the qubits can thus be controlled in-part through control of the magnetic field. This capability lends quantum computing a boost which is needed for overall quantum information system control. June 9, 2018.
U.S. National Quantum Initiative Program
The National Quantum Initiative Program is another recently developed U.S. Government attempt to openly get ahead of the quantum computing curve. The NQIP action plan made its way on to the internet in April of 2018. In addition to the Quantum Computing Research Act of 2018, the NQIP aspires to spurn inter-agency collaboration. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE), and others, are called on to coordinate and lead the initiative. Operational aspects called for in the NQIP, in-part, are to develop an industrial quantum technology workforce, engineer quantum computers and communications, and to develop the infrastructure to support the efforts. Part of the support will be provided through Quantum Innovation Laboratories (QILabs), a Quantum Research Network (QRN), and a Quantum Computing Access Program (QCAP). June 10, 2018.
Intel’s Tale of Two Technologies
Intel has produced its 49 qubit system, Tangle Lake, publicly revealing it this past January. Now, there is their silicon wafer. Each with 26 qubits, they do their work with quantum spin of electrons. Intel’s Jim Clarke was interviewed last month, discussing topics such as Tangle Lake’s limits, the nearness of silicon qubits using spin, and Intel’s belief of the top quantum computing applications. For the discussion, read on. June 11, 2018.
Global Quantum Key Distribution Network Partners Announced
In May, the European Space Agency (ESA) teamed with Satellite-Enabled Solutions (SES) to develop the Quantum Cryptography Telecommunication System, aka QUARTZ. Last week, SES announced ten partners in the project, each of which will contribute to the quantum key distribution system. SES’ constellation of satellites will provide needed global coverage for distributing the encryption keys via laser; securely transmitted using quantum encryption methods. Industry and corporate partners such as ID Quantique, itrust consulting, and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light will comprise part of the project team. June 12, 2018.
Volkswagen Gives Quantum Computing A Go
Volkswagen has reported the use of quantum computing in auto-battery development. In conjunction with Google and D-Wave, VW simulated molecular interactions in batteries. This successful use case of quantum computing technology will be used as a vehicle to broaden VW’s scope of future quantum computing use and furthering quantum computer algorithm development. June 12, 2018.
Microsoft, OpenVPN, Post-Quantum Computing
Recently, Microsoft made virtual private networks (VPNs) and post-quantum cryptography (PQC) cryptosystem experimentation available for public study. Making use of the widely acclaimed OpenVPN software, MS combined OpenVPN with a PQC kit. The present iteration only protects data tunneling between the client and the VPN server with purportedly PQC-safe encryption algorithms. As data exits this trusted network onto the internet (public), classical cryptography takes over the encryption, increasing risk to the data’s confidentiality. The MS project complements the Open Quantum Safe project and NIST’s Post-Quantum Cryptography endeavors. Read on for further detail. June 12, 2018.
$4M in Venture Capital for Strangeworks
Strangeworks, the company not quantum mechanics, has raised $4,000,000 in venture capital, the company announced June 12. The funding will enable Strangeworks to create developer tools for finance, energy, aerospace, and pharmaceutical markets. Tools for enabling quantum computing are inherently different from classical (semiconductor) systems due to the intrinsic nature of the quantum and necessary architectures of the systems. June 13, 2018.
U.S. DOD Taking the Charge?
The U.S. DOD is providing funding to quantum through Army and Navy research laboratories as Qubit shows (see More $ to VT for QIS on this page). But is this government department taking charge? A reasonable synopsis and a quick read of U.S. Government quantum efforts. June 14, 2018.
More $ to VT for QIS
U.S. Office of Naval Research has added $460,000 to the Virginia Tech coffers which have received nearly $4M in U.S. Government grants for quantum information sciences. The $460K is slated to develop controlling techniques for quantum systems through atoms, molecules, and circuits. VT is also engaged in other studies in quantum technologies to include computing, communication, and quantum simulation. Silicon-based spin qubits, superconducting circuits, and single-molecule magnets are more specific examples being researched at VT. June 14, 2018.
U.K.’s 500Gbps Quantum-secure Network
The U.K.’s National Quantum Technologies Programme spawned a 500Gbps quantum-secure network between Cambridge and Ipswich. The distance covered is greater than 120km. Its purpose is to study and validate use cases for quantum key distribution. June 14, 2018.
Doughnut-Shaped Pulses of Light to Transfer Data?
University of Rochester researchers have published a list of ’12 Herculean tasks’ they believe will inspire the next quantum scientists. One of the authors demonstrated the use of ‘twisted light’ to slightly more than double data-throughput per photon. The approach utilized the mechanics of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for encoding the data. Two of the tasks put forth to ponder are, “”What is the future of quantum coherence, squeezing, and entanglement for enhanced super resolution and sensing?””, “”How can we solve some of humanity’s biggest problems through new quantum technologies?”” June 16, 2018.
Entangling Photons Faster than Decoherring…
Technical University of Delft scientists have accomplished on-demand entanglement, of sorts. The ability to entangle photons between quantum chips before the photons ‘disentangle’ is thought necessary to create a link between two nodes. This should enable a quantum internet. By 2020, it is hoped four cities in the Netherlands will comprise this network. June 16, 2015.
Low Quantum IQ for J. Q. Public, Among Other Findings
The British Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) recently concluded a survey of the public regarding public knowledge and perceptions of quantum technologies (QT). The aim on the study was to open dialogue to bridge the gap between researchers and the public. What little do we know…June 16, 2018.
Yale Aims to Hop On-Board then Ahead…
Yale sees quantum science and technology as a “new frontier of fundamental knowledge” about the universe; hopes to expand program to international acclaim. June 16, 2018.
IBM’s QISKit ACQUA
As quantum computing gains visibility, the need for software development and creation of algorithms has become clear. IBM has made its IBM Q network available with over 85,000 users taking advantage of its qubits. To aid this use, IBM is trying to fill the gap of software development for quantum computing. The QISKit ACQUA – Algorithms and Circuits for QUantum Applications – has been produced to meet the need. It is a collection of algorithms to enable quantum-unfamiliar domain experts to harness IBM’s Q system through their familiar classical computing software. It also permits collaboration between researchers by permitting new algorithms to be shared in the ACQUA open-source libraries. Interesting play by Big Blue. June 18, 2018.
IBM’s Q network may get more use with IBM’s QISKit ACQUA.
Superconducting Qubit Transferred Via Coaxial Cable
Physicists at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, have successfully transferred two qubits via coaxial cable. Using a microwave photon resonator to transmit the qubit state, the quantum state was successfully transmitted to a second qubit through the cable; a distance of about 2 meters. With a transmission success rate of 80 percent, the process was repeatable upwards of 50,000 times per second. The team’s next goal is to enable entanglement swapping – using qubits to transmit and receive. If successful, the technique could open up avenues for larger quantum computers. June 18, 2018.
It is no secret Intel is all-in for producing quantum computers. They have the infrastructure to mass produce computer chips. Now, if they could get a quantum chip to fit into this production line what else could there be? Many sizeable – and frigid – challenges remain. However, as Intel’s Director of Quantum Hardware, Jim Clarke, reminds us, the quantum computing system not only requires super-cooling refrigeration, the devices must have circuit boards, RAM, long-term storage, essentially, high-powered computers based-on silicon to interact with the qubit wafer. He goes on to recall the size of the Cray supercomputer a scant 40 years ago. It filled a room; over the past 40 years, systems with similar computing power shrank to fit in our hands. Interesting piece on Intel’s path forward. Read on. June 18, 2018.
National Quantum Initiative Act Announced (It’s not the NQCRA of 2018)
The U.S. House Science, Space, and Technology Committee announced they are writing a proposal for the National Quantum Initiative Act, a similar proposal to that of the Quantum Computing Research Act of 2018 recently proposed. A bit early in the development, the first blush appears to have a lighter government touch on the direction of U.S. quantum information science (QIS) than its recent predecessor, the NQCRA of 2018. The National Quantum Initiative Act will accelerate quantum research and development. It will promote greater quantum research, standards, federal coordination, and collaboration among the key quantum players – laboratories, industry and universities.” Though lighter in appearance the Act anticipates bringing a whole of government approach to enhancing U.S. QIS. Key tenets are: (1) Establishment of a National Quantum Coordination Office (2) NIST, DoE, NSF will support quantum research centers and development therein (3) Encouragement of U.S. commercial industry to contribute to a national effort and (4) Enhancement of the pipeline for the U.S. quantum workforce in order to gain an international lead. Part of the salesmanship of this proposal is bringing a prototype of IBM’s 49-qubit system to Capitol Hill this week. Finally, in the past two weeks, Congress is getting on board. June 19, 2018.
Finland Approves PQC-ready Device
Finland’s National Cyber Security Authority has approved a firewall and virtual private network appliance which claims compatibility for post-quantum cryptographic algorithms. The approval and considerations for cryptographic resilience in a quantum computer world lend strength to the growing international concern over quantum supremacy’s arrival. It’s just a matter of when…because quantum is coming. June 20, 2018.
Quantum Dots and Donor Atoms
The U.S. Department of Energy’s research teams recently integrated quantum dots and donor atoms to produce qubits with little degradation. There are two primary benefits from this new qubit. First, maintaining of the quantum data stored in the spin (coherence). Second, use of silicon materials which have manufacturing infrastructure readily available. Keeping coherence high is a necessity to developing practical quantum computers. June 20, 2018.
Quantum Computing. Next Step Between WWII Allies?
Signs are promising that quantum computing will get here. Potential military uses are numerous and growing as more minds take on quantum information science. How have the Five Eyes nations – U.S., Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia – tackled complex military issues in the past? Is now the right time to circle the wagons as has been done throughout modern history? June 20, 2018.
Creating Rank-and-File Photons; and a Quantum Worforce
A team of scientists from France, Germany, and the U.S., are working to develop techniques and materials to produce “indistinguishable photons”. Doing so would permit greater integration into the current high-speed, light-based, computing infrastructure found throughout the globe. This is a necessity to expanding quantum computing, in a practical sense. Other facets to the research include increasing the quantum workforce: “Ultimately, we hope to draw more researchers into this field” the team commented. June 20, 2018.
Reducing Quantum Hardware with “Time Crystals”
Majorana time crystals and non-Abelian anyons have been shown to be ‘braidable’, sharing attributes of each to establish a method for transferring quantum information. The study, conducted by physicists at the University of Singapore, shows that by increasing the temporal dimension of the braid system and by manipulating increased Majorana particle modes, fewer physical devices and the accoutrements are needed to produce desired results. The long-term vision is to produce a physically smaller and less complex quantum computing system architecture. June 22, 2018.
Cybersecurity and Quantum Key Distribution
The concept of Alice and Bob communicating is back in the spotlight with quantum key distribution added to it. This team from the University of York developed a process which involves displacing the data detectors – the point where information must be read – to a location separate from the sender and receiver. Doing so reduces probability of a hacker attacking the device. See the layperson’s article at ScienceDaily and the original study at the Cornell University Library site. June 22, 2018.
What Quantum Computing & China Mean to World Stability
China is moving rapidly through developing quantum computing setting aside billions of U.S. dollars for research and development studies and facilities. In 2017, with the launch of the Micius satellite and subsequent successful quantum experiments involving entangled photons the Chinese appear to be leaps ahead of the global community. The brief history of China’s quantum ambitions and their thirst for supremacy in space have many implications in the geo-political spectrum. Will the ambitions reduce U.S. dominance internationally, both militarily and politically? THE NATIONAL INTEREST is carrying a very interesting piece covering China and possible influences to world stability if the path to quantum computing continues in its favor. June 23, 2018.
Quantum Computing’s Fit Into Classical Computing
Computer science theorists have been troubled with answering just what problem could a quantum computer solve that a classical computer would ever possibly accomplish. Collaboration between Princeton University and Stanford University theorists believe they have an answer – finally. This piece explores the question: “[We] want to know, where does quantum computing fit into the world of classical complexity theory?” June 23, 2018.
64-Qubit Simulation Successful
With improvements in both superconducting and semiconductor quantum chips, simulating a 50-qubit system using classical computers takes in the region of 16 petabytes of RAM. Chinese researchers have managed to simulate a 64-qubit system with greatly reduced hardware requirements. With such a reduction, realization of other quantum feats stands to be simulated while the world waits…because quantum is coming. June 24, 2018.
Germany’s Parliament Discusses Quantum Technology
Germany’s Parliamentary Digital Agenda Committee discusses the country’s way-ahead with quantum computing. Much of the discussion centered around data security. Further, rumor is swirling that the German government will be embarking on a significant quantum technology initiative. June 24, 2018.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence of Superconductors
A Russian research group at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has demonstrated a superconductor feature known as Abrikosov vortices exists in non-superconducting metal when in contact with a superconductor. The nexus for quantum computers and this finding lays in the key property of superconductors: Quantum coherence. This “macroscopic quantum coherence of superconductors” may be harnessed to enable qubits. June 24, 2018.
Yale Getting 16M to Build With Imperfect Parts…
U.S. Army Research Office grants $16M to Yale University over 4 years; funds the Yale Quantum Institute. The goal is to build a “perfect quantum computer out of imperfect parts.” June 26, 2018.
Quantum Computing Business Challenges
Recent legislative efforts in the U.S., technology advances, and international competition. Not to mention a skills shortage. Many challenges to international quantum computing competition; especially from China. June 26, 2018.
QIS: Quantum Information Subcommittee?
White House’s National Science and Technology Council to herd Quantum Information Subcommittee. June 26, 2018.
University of Melbourne Sets Quantum Record Using “961,307”
The Australian research team at the U. of Melbourne has simulated a 60-qubit quantum computer. Estimations for the algorithm given it to process would require 18,000 petabytes of classical computing power to produce the result of the two prime numbers which arrive at 961,307. With a quantum computer, albeit simulated, the same equation took a scant 13.8 terabytes of Pawsey supercomputing power. The usefulness of the experiment allows study of algorithms which will need to be specialized to function properly in true quantum systems. June 27, 2018.
Optical Phonons Theory is “Under Control”
Tokyo Institute of Technology researchers have matched theory to observation and thus have achieved a “comprehensive understanding of the coherent control of coherent optical phonons.” The usefulness of which is geared toward quantum computing memory systems as well as materials science and superconductivity. June 27, 2018.
Quantum Communication Communicating Atomic Time
Measuring time is a bit more involved when responsible for, say, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), timing. A number of scientists are posing the idea of using quantum communication techniques to more accurately – and quickly – transfer atomic time between satellites and other timing systems. It is done through bypassing the classical computer conversions of numbers and data – in a simple sense. June 27, 2018.
Attaining Quantum Supremacy, Closer?
University of Queensland researchers concluded an experiment bringing the path to quantum supremacy that much closer. And “The real message of this experiment is to not fear…researchers will have a more complete picture of boson sampling with loss, allowing them to forge new paths to a demonstration of quantum supremacy.” June 28, 2018.
What do you call an object that is not quite quantum-sized and not quite ordinary-sized? Try a “Schrodinger’s kitten”. How does the world of quantum transform into the classical world? What does this look like? Here’s some deep thoughts… June 28, 2018.
Taking Up Microsoft
Dubai Electricity and Water Authority is the first non-U.S. organization to take Microsoft up on its quantum program. The two aim to accelerate the water authority’s goals. Specifically, the organization’s ability to optimize energy use. June 29, 2018.
Quantum Key Distribution Service for the U.S.
In a first for the United States, a private firm, Quantum Xchange, has launched a quantum key distribution service. Expected to serve the Northeast from D.C. to Boston, the network will be connecting Wall Street with financial operations in New Jersey. The network model is to provide quantum keys on demand; making QKD available to many economic sectors. June 29, 2018.
Quantum Random Number Generation
In encryption, the one-time pad is known as the most secure method to maintain confidentiality of data — unbreakable with completely random numbers. Acting as the cryptographic key, random numbers must be truly random or the risk to the encrypted data becomes an issue. Third-party knowledge of the underlying algorithm presents opportunity for exposure of the keys. Alternate random number generating processes are influenced by the laws of physics and latency of generation. Enter quantum physics; a space where there is ample chaos to generate truly random numbers. “If you take two photons emitted by the same atom at different times but under the same conditions, they may exhibit different behaviors, and there’s no way to predict those behaviors ahead of time.” Current approaches, commercial sources, and history of the quest for random number generation is found in IEEE Spectrum’s “The Future of Cybersecurity Is the Quantum Random Number Generator”. June 29, 2018.